By Mira Ariel
Having access to Noun-Phrase Antecedents deals an intensive shift within the research of discourse anaphora, from a simply pragmatic account to a cognitive account, when it comes to processing techniques. Mira Ariel defines referring expressions as markers signalling the measure of Accessibility in reminiscence of the antecedent. The thought of Accessibility is explicitly outlined, the the most important elements being the Salience of the antecedent, and the team spirit among the antecedent and the anaphor.
This research yields an mind-blowing array of recent effects. the ideal distribution of referring expressions in real discourse is at once envisioned. numerous universals of anaphoric family members are said. hence, even if now not all languages inevitably have an identical markers, and nor do they assign them exactly the comparable functionality, Ariel indicates that all of them obey an identical Accessibility marking hierarchy.
This ebook should be obligatory studying for somebody with an curiosity within the semantics and pragmatics of referring expressions, within the interplay of semantics and pragmatics, and extra quite often within the interplay among peripheral and significant cognitive structures.
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Additional resources for Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents
Further in the paragraph position seems to favour pronouns and definite des criptions (89 per cent together). 2 seems somewhat of a counter-example. Even if we take into consideration, which indeed we must, that demonstratives (in English) are simply not very popular, the high percentages of pronouns in the two distant positions seems to go against our claim that pronouns mark High Accessibility. However, as will be mentioned below, Distance is not the only factor affecting Accessibility. Another is the salience of the referent, as related to its being a topic or a non-topic, for example.
We turn now to examine proper names. Based on parallel counts we will be able to decide on the relative Accessibility of definite descriptions vs. various types of proper names. e. a conventional meaning shared by the speakers of a certain speech community regarding those names, over and above their referential power. Their ‘rigidity of designation’ has on the whole been taken for granted (unless, of course, they simply failed to refer). e. 21 above), it is certainly true that proper names are markedly less so than other Accessibility Markers.
Clark et al. (1983) demonstrate the importance of physical salience when analysing demonstrative references. Thus, in an experiment they performed, when subjects had to decide which physical entity was being referred to by an expression like this flo w er, the role of physical salience came out. In fact, the experimenter was pointing at a picture which contained four types of flowers. Nevertheless, when one type was more prominent (basically made larger in the photograph), most subjects were in agreement that the researcher had that particular flower in mind.
Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents by Mira Ariel