By David Hunter
A pragmatic advent to severe considering throughout a variety of disciplines
Knowing the best way to imagine severely approximately what to think and what to do is vital for achievement in either educational environments. a realistic consultant to serious pondering introduces readers to the suggestions, tools, and criteria for pondering seriously approximately purposes and arguments in almost any region of perform. whereas so much literature on severe considering makes a speciality of its formal functions inside of philosophy, this ebook bargains a large belief of severe pondering and explores its sensible relevance to engaging in examine throughout a large choice of disciplines, together with enterprise, schooling, and the organic sciences.
While the ebook pursues an interdisciplinary method of serious pondering, supplying examples and illustrations from assorted matters and fields of analysis, it additionally offers innovations to assist readers establish the tools and criteria which are attribute of severe considering of their selected branches of studying, of their office, and of their personal lives. the idea that of an issue is prolonged past its philosophical roots to incorporate experimentation, checking out, dimension, coverage improvement and overview, and aesthetic appreciation as actions that require serious considering. The logical, center thoughts of severe considering are awarded in a rigorous but casual method, with inventive and useful innovations for outlining, reading, and comparing purposes and arguments anywhere they're chanced on. every one bankruptcy ends with a "Mistakes to Avoid" part in addition to numerous routines designed to assist readers combine and expand the chapter's lessons.
A useful consultant to serious considering is a superb publication for classes on serious considering and good judgment on the upper-undergraduate and graduate degrees. it's also a suitable reference for someone with a common curiosity in severe considering abilities.
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe
It is wrong, Clifford insisted, to believe something on the basis of wishful thinking, or for nothing but self-interested reasons. But suppose that the ship had not sunk. Suppose that the crew and passengers had gotten lucky and the ship m a d e it safely to America. Still, Clifford argued, it would have been just as wrong for the shipowner to allow the ship to sail and to have believed as he did that the ship was safe. Suppose finally that the ship was in fact quite safe, and that the ship-owner's initial concerns about its safety were not well founded.
The evidence that he provided is undermined by our reasons for doubting that he is being honest with us. This does not m e a n that we think that he testified falsely. It just means that we should not trust what he says. We should remain agnostic, undecided. We should withhold judgment until more of the evidence is in. Sometimes we may have reason to question all of the evidence provided by some source. For example, the Miiller-Lyer illusion shows that we have to be very careful when we rely on evidence provided by our vision, at least when we are trying to decide when two lines are of the same length.
To say that I believe that 2 + 2 = 4 would be to say something weaker than what I could say, and that is what makes it a misleading way to put it. But it might be true that I believe it, even if it would be misleading to say it. In any event, in this book we will follow the philosophical tradition and assume that to know something you must also believe it. O u r real concern is with justification anyway and not with belief. Critical thinking is concerned with the kinds of reasons that are needed to know something.
A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe by David Hunter